Introduction to Horned Lizards of North America

By Wade C. Sherbrooke

* positive factors specified species bills; supplies info on horned lizard biology, ecology, and evolution; and describes the position of those interesting reptiles in mythology, tradition, and art

* Covers the us, Mexico, and Canada, and contains all species of horned lizards

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Chihauhan ravens (Corvus cryptoleucus) carry useless Texas Horned Lizards to the neighborhood in their nests to feed to their turning out to be younger. however the younger birds may possibly die attempting to ingest complete horned lizards, so the adults open the lizard’s stomach with their robust beaks and eviscerate them. gentle elements are fed to the younger, and the spiny carcass is discarded. Snakes, in fact, devour their prey entire, killed by means of both constriction and suffocation or the injection of venom (pl. 81). this can be a harmful venture if the meal is a horned lizard. Rattlesnakes are often stumbled on useless with the horns in their sufferer, a half-swallowed horned lizard, sticking out throughout the partitions in their throats (pls. eighty two, 83). different lizardeating snakes, resembling whipsnakes (Masticophis spp. ), can endure an identical destiny. by contrast, different members of a similar species of rattlesnakes, akin to the Western Diamond-backed Rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) and Sidewinder (C. cerastes), were came upon to comprise half-digested horned lizards of their stomachs — a profitable and nutritious meal instead of their final try out at consuming. the variation among lifestyles ENEMIES AND security 111 Plate seventy eight. a better Roadrunner (Geococcyx californianus) lifts a Texas Horned Lizard (Phrynosoma cornutum) off the floor by means of the lizard’s leg. Plate seventy nine. a better Roadrunner (Geococcyx californianus) makes use of a centrifugal slam opposed to the floor to kill a horned lizard (Texas Horned Lizard [Phrynosoma cornutum]). Plate eighty. a better Roadrunner’s (Geococcyx californianus) expandable and difficult throat permits ingestion and swallowing of a giant and spiny meal (Texas Horned Lizard [Phrynosoma cornutum]). 112 ENEMIES AND security Plate eighty one. A broken-off Western Diamond-backed Rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) fang caught in again pores and skin exhibits the reason for demise of this lizard (Texas Horned Lizard [Phrynosoma cornutum]). Plate eighty two. A useless Western Diamond-backed Rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) with the horns of its useless meant sufferer puncturing its neck (Texas Horned Lizard [Phrynosoma cornutum]). Plate eighty three. terrible predator judgment through this Western Diamond-backed Rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox), possibly inspired through acute starvation, ended in its demise and the demise of its prey (Texas Horned Lizard [Phrynosoma cornutum]). ENEMIES AND protection 113 and dying for either prey and predator looks the relative sizes of the person prey and the person predator. right judgment of the chance concerned while taking pictures and swallowing prey is necessary to snake survival. degrees of protection based on their many enemies with diversified talents, horned lizards have advanced various defenses, numerous of which they might hire in live performance. No safety tactic on its own is ideal, and never each protection is acceptable for survival opposed to each predator. utilizing a suitable, powerful security in the course of an assault by way of a specific predator can result in survival, while misjudgment can result in loss of life. For any power prey animal, we will divide its predator avoidance diversifications into 3 successive traces of safeguard.

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