NATO's Secret Army: Operation Gladio and Terrorism in Western Europe (Contemporary Security Studies)

By Daniele Ganser

The CIA and the British mystery carrier MI6, in collaboration with the army alliance NATO and eu army mystery prone organize a community of clandestine anticommunist armies in Western Europe after international struggle II. the key squaddies have been informed on distant islands within the Mediterranean and in unorthodox war facilities in England and within the usa by way of the golf green Berets and SAS detailed Forces. The community was once armed with explosives, laptop weapons and high-tech communique apparatus hidden in underground bunkers and mystery hands caches in forests and mountain meadows. In a few international locations, the key military associated up with right-wing terrorists who in a mystery warfare engaged in political manipulation, harassment of left wing events, massacres, coup d'etats and torture.

Codenamed "Gladio" ('the sword'), the Italian mystery military used to be uncovered in 1990 by means of Italian leading Minister Giulio Andreotti to the Italian Senate, whereupon the clicking referred to the "the top saved, and so much destructive, political-military mystery considering that global battle II" (Observer, 18. November 1990) and saw that "The tale turns out immediately from the pages of a political thriller." (The Times, November 19, 1990). Ever seeing that, so-called 'stay-behind' armies of NATO have additionally been stumbled on in France, Spain, Portugal, Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxemburg, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Switzerland, Austria, Greece and Turkey. They have been across the world coordinated via the Pentagon and NATO and had their final recognized assembly within the NATO-linked Allied Clandestine Committee (ACC) in Brussels in October 1990.

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Europeans have been allowed to symbolize NATO with 27 the top civilian authentic, the Secretary-General. yet ever when you consider that US basic Eisenhower used to be nominated as first SAVEUR, the top army workplace in Europe was once constantly given to US Generals. sixteen Retired CIA officer Thomas Polgar proven after the invention of the key armies in Western Europe that they have been coordinated through 'a kind of unconventional war making plans team' associated with NATO. 17 This was once additionally proven through the German press, which highlighted that this secretive division of NATO had in the course of the complete chilly battle remained less than the dominance of the U.S.. 'The missions of the key armies are co-ordinated by means of the "Special Forces part" in a strictly secured wing of NATO headquarters in Casteau', the German press comparable. 'A gray metal door, which opens as a financial institution vault in basic terms via a particular quantity mix, prohibits trespassing to the unauthorised. officials of alternative departments, who're invited, are checked correct after the door at a gloomy counter. The specific Forces part is directed by way of British or American officials completely and so much papers in stream hold the stamp "American Eyes in simple terms. '"18 Given the power of the Communist events in different nations of Western Europe, NATO had engaged in mystery non-orthodox struggle ever for the reason that its construction in the years following the second one international conflict. in response to the findings of the Belgian parliamentary research into Gladio, mystery non-orthodox struggle even preceded the basis of the alliance. As of 1948, non-orthodox struggle used to be coordinated by means of the so-called 'Clandestine Committee of the Western Union' (CCWU). based on the clicking all Gladio 'nations have been participants of the "Clandestine Committee of the Western Union" (CCWU) and took part usually in its reunions via a consultant in their respective mystery provider. the key prone are usually in direct touch with the S/B constructions. '19 whilst in 1949 the North Atlantic Treaty was once signed, CCWU was once secretly built-in into the recent overseas army equipment and as of 1951 operated below the recent label CPC. at the moment eu NATO headquarters have been in France and likewise the CPC used to be positioned in Paris. just like the CCWU earlier than it the CPC used to be concerned about the making plans, coaching and path of non-orthodox conflict conducted via the stay-behind armies and detailed Forces. merely officials with the optimum NATO defense clearances have been allowed to go into CPC headquarters have been below the information of CIA and MI6 specialists the chiefs of the Western eu mystery prone met at commonplace periods in the course of the 12 months on the way to coordinate meas- ures of non-orthodox battle in Western Europe. whilst in 1966 French President Charles de Gaulle expelled NATO from France, the eu headquarters of the army alliance, to the nice anger of the Pentagon and US President Lyndon Johnson, needed to circulation from Paris to Brussels. Secretly, the CPC additionally moved to Belgium, because the Belgian Gladio research came upon.

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