The Passage West: Philosophy After the Age of the Nation State

By Giacomo Marramao

During this formidable paintings, Giacomo Marramao proposes an intensive reconceptualization of the area process in our period of declining nation sovereignty. He argues that globalization can't be decreased to mere economics or summarized by way of words equivalent to ‘the finish of heritage’ or the ‘westernization of the world’. in its place, we discover ourselves embarking on a passage to a brand new, post-nation kingdom age destined to rework all civilizations – and to disrupt Western geopolitical dominance. To confront the demanding situations of this interregnum one needs to imagine by way of a brand new and radical universalism, a universalism of distinction capable of revitalize politics and to demythologize identity.

Building at the nice interwar dialogue among Spengler, Junger, Schmitt and Heidegger, Marramao’s new paintings engages with Habermas, Derrida and post-colonialism. Arguing opposed to the vintage Western pretension to common norms of democracy and cause, he develops as a substitute the belief of a ‘universal politics of difference’.

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It's those characteristics that represent, of their interweaving and reciprocal blend, the ‘differential’ that turns the Occident right into a unicum among human cultures. To sum up, while for Polanyi the phenomenal personality of the trendy is shaped through the atypical dominance assigned to the ‘economic’ (which separates it not just from different cultures but in addition from its personal historical and archaic past), in Weber the exception impacts, from its very foundation, the complete orbit of okzidentaler Rationalismus insofar because it kinds a basic technique of secularisation and ‘disenchantment of the world’. From the Weberian standpoint, rationality isn't really an self sufficient worth when it comes to a few type of self-sufficiency of the industrial, yet is, quite, a variable established upon an extra. we are going to see extra sincerely later in what method this topos of symbolic extra is necessary for Polanyi in addition. For the current, it's adequate to remember that, while the Polanyian ‘excess’ is led again to the size of the sacred and to the patience of the rites of trade modelled at the reward, the Weberian ‘excess’ – the genetic website of the ‘singularity’ of the construction of the Occident’s ‘deviation’ – is composed within the paradox inherent to the Entzauberung, that's, the ambiguity of a disenchantment that, in its increase, represses its foundation, letting the irrational presuppositions of rationality fall into oblivion. For Weber, the disenchantment of the area is – not like Polanyi – a phenomenon of desacralisation and deritualisation. the sensible behavior of lifestyles and the basic moral and spiritual attitudes which this disenchantment induces disappointed ritual organization and eternally uproot social bonds. during this experience, Jewish prophecy lies on the beginning of the method of disenchantment manifested in glossy science’s ‘Entseelung der Natur’. 7 additionally, this method reveals within the Calvinist ethic and the puritan ethic of sects the elemental full of life transformer permitting Western rationalism to show its singularity right into a generalised dominion, thereby generating the paradoxical dynamic of a cohesion that generalises itself. ‘Aristotle was once right’: the Critique of recent Individualism In diametric competition to Weber, Polanyi attempts – as in a chemical test – to isolate the weather of the trendy marketplace economic system from the nice riverbed of the overall economic climate of human societies ‘normally’ regulated by means of extra. The horizon during which his notion is positioned is the only delimited by way of the subjects of that groovy ethno-anthropology that starts off with Marcel Mauss’ Essai sur le don (1923–1924) and is then built theoretically through the Collège de Sociologie throughout the Nineteen Thirties. it truly is no twist of fate that, in recent times, the French anti-utilitarian institution has had a number one function within the Polanyi revival. in spite of the fact that, I desire to distance myself from the theses avowed by way of MAUSS (Mouvement anti-utilitariste dans les sciences sociales) for 2 units of purposes. First, simply because i'm really not confident that Polanyi’s paintings presents a last solution to the connection of the industry and other kinds of social bond, similar to legal responsibility.

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