Theories of Ideology: The Powers of Alienation and Subjection (Historical Materialism Book Series)

By Jan Rehmann

The emergence of ideology theories marked a re-foundation of Marxist learn into the functioning of alienation and subjection. Going past conventional ideas of ‘manipulation’ and ‘false consciousness’, they became to the fabric lifestyles of hegemonic apparatuses and excited about the often subconscious results of ideological practices, rituals and discourses.

In this magisterial paintings Jan Rehmann reconstructs the several strands of ideology theories starting from Marx to Adorno/Horkheimer, from Lenin to Gramsci, from Althusser to Stuart corridor, from Bourdieu to W.F. Haug, from Foucault to Butler. He compares them in a fashion actual discussion turns into attainable and applies the several how to the ‘market totalitarianism’ of today’s high-tech-capitalism

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27 et sqq. ; Marx 1873, p. 19. 2. Engels 1893, p. 164. three. Marx and Engels 1845, p. 420. four. Marx and Engels 1845, p. 36. five. Marx and Engels 1845, pp. 36 et sq. Marx and Engels’ Ideology-Theory • 23 ‘echoes’ as ‘mechanistic metaphors’ that have been not able to know the genesis of ideologies like faith and morals. 6 in line with Stuart corridor, phrases like ‘false awareness’ or ‘ideological distortion’ assumed that the hundreds have been the ‘dupes of history’, while ‘we’, the serious intellectuals, have been supposedly in a position to dwell with out phantasm. 7 corridor mixed his rejection of an ‘enlightenment’ suggestion of ideology as ‘inverted’ realization with the epistemological critique of an ‘empiricist relation of the topic to knowledge’, in response to which ‘the genuine international indelibly imprints its meanings and pursuits without delay into our recognition’ – other than if there have been a few ideological distortions that obscured the unilateral fact of the genuine. eight For Raymond Williams, it was once an ‘objectivist fable’ to think that ‘real’ existence stipulations may be identified ‘independently of language . . . and of its records’, since it will be a unsuitable assumption that there has been ‘first fabric social existence after which, at a few temporal or spatial distance, cognizance and “its” products’, that have been, actually, ‘always . . . elements of the cloth social strategy itself’. nine Terry Eagleton believed to have chanced on that Marx and Engels have been responsible of a ‘naive sensuous empiricism which fails to understand that there's no “real life-process” with out interpretation’:10 ‘What distinguishes the human animal is that it strikes in a global of which means; and those meanings are constitutive of its actions, no longer secondary to them’. eleven He drew the realization that Marx and Engels’s metaphor of the digital camera obscura used to be not able to know the energetic and dynamic nature of human awareness, and in its place lowered it to a tool ‘passively recording gadgets within the exterior world’. 12 2. 1. 2. A ‘naive sensuous empiricism’? At this element, it turns into questionable no matter if those criticisms rather hit the mark of Marx and Engels’s method. round the similar time as Marx and Engels have been writing The German Ideology (1845–6), Marx released his Theses on Feuerbach (1845), whose first thesis made the feedback that ‘all past materialism’ had conceived of truth and of sensuousness ‘only within the type of the item, or of contemplation, yet no longer as sensuous human task, perform, now not subjectively’. thirteen unlike such an objectivist ‘previous materialism’, Marx highlighted the fulfillment of idealism as having expounded the ‘active side’. notwithstanding, it did so 6. Projekt Ideologietheorie 1979, p. eight. 7. corridor 1988, p. forty four. eight. Ibid. nine. Williams 1977, pp. 60–1. 10. Eagleton 1991, p. seventy five. eleven. Eagleton 1991, p. seventy three. 12. Eagleton 1991, p. seventy six. thirteen. Marx 1875, p. three. 24 • Chapter in basic terms ‘abstractly’, because it ‘does now not be aware of genuine, sensuous job as such’. 14 Given the truth that the Theses on Feuerbach introduced the supersession of an ‘old materialism’ via a ‘new’ one,15 which all started from subjective perform, it might be remarkable if Marx and Engels within the German Ideology assumed a ‘passive’ mirrored image of the outside global via recognition, hence falling again to the placement that Marx had simply denounced.

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